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WAEC questions for "Biology :: Basic Ecological Concepts"
Q1
Which of the following is the effect of continuous tillage on an ecological system?
A
Addition of more humus to the soil
B
Decrease in productivity
C
Increase in yield
D
Improved fertility
E
Prevention of erosion
Q2
Which of the following processes is not due to interaction between the biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem?
A
Soil nutrient depletion
B
Condensation
C
Decomposition
D
Osmosis
E
Photosynthesis
Q3
The entire habits and habitat of an organism can be described as its
A
ecological community
B
ecological niche
C
habitat factor
D
biotic factor
E
abiotic factor
Q4
Which of these is not true characteristic of the tropical rain forest?
A
Vegetation consists predominantly of tall trees, with thick canopy
B
Forest is rich in epiphysis and climbers
C
Annual rainfall is less than 100cm
D
Interior has low light intensity high humidity, and damp floor
E
Fruits of trees are often large-sized and are generally without adaptation to wind dispersal
Q5
The frequency of Andropogon in a grass lawn is 90.100 throws were made with 1 meter square quadrat . What is the density of Andropogon in the field?
A
0.09 per M
B
0.90 per M
C
9.0 per M
D
90 per M
E
900 per M
Q6
Which of the following is the correct method of collecting soil organism?
A
Heating the soil sample in an oven
B
Aerating the soil sample
C
Refrigerating the soil for some hours
D
Pouring hot water on the soil to enable the organism float
E
Placing a lighted electric bulb over soil in a funnel
Q7
Which of these groups of organisms is responsible for capturing energy for the biotic community?
A
Decomposers
B
Omnivores
C
Consumers
D
Producers
E
Detritrus feeders
Q8
Which pathway directly leads to transfer of useful energy within a biological community?
A
I only
B
II and III only
C
I and III only
D
I and II only
E
IV only
Q9
Which of the following pathways will energy follow to reach plasmodium in the red blood cells?
A
I, II and III
B
I and II
C
II only
D
III and IV
E
IV and I
Q10
The Tutgren's funnel is used to
A
extract minute soil organisms
B
measure the amount of rainfall
C
collect water from habitats
D
pour liquid into containers with narrow mouth
E
measure the volume of heavy liquids
Q11
Which of the following is not aquatic habitat?
A
Estuaries
B
Ponds
C
Rainforest
D
Swamp
E
Salt lake
Q12
Which of these materials is not required for insect collection in an ecological field-trip?
A
Pooter
B
Seechi disc
C
Spreading board
D
Jar containing alcohol
E
Sweep net
Q13
The factors which determine the type of vegetation a particular habitat will support are related to the following except
A
nature of the soil particles
B
amount of rainfall
C
mineral content of the soil
D
farming activities
E
depth of the water table
Q14
Which of the following statements is not true of population?
A
Members of a population may be the same species
B
Members of a population may be of the same species but do not interbreed
C
Size of a population may be of the same species but do not interbreed
D
Some species can form another population elsewhere
E
Members of a population must co-exist
Q15
Which of the following statements is not correct?
A
Shortage of food may be caused by pestilence, rinderpest and neglect of farming
B
Shortage of food may lead to competition, Emigration, death and decline in the rate of reproduction
C
Over-crowding may lead to scarcity of food
D
Dispersal of seeds and fruits prevents overcrowding
E
Territorial defence encourages food scarcity in a habitat
Q16
The distribution of organisms in a fresh-water habitat like a stream or pond is determined by the following except
A
rainfall
B
temperature
C
ph of soil
D
light penetration
E
tidal movements
Q17
Which of the following is a characteristics of a swamp?
A
Vegetation with stratified arrangement
B
Mesophtes with broad leaves
C
The ground is flooded most of the time
D
Predominance of climbing plants
E
Many plants with fire resistant structures
Q18
Very low annual rainfall, sparse vegetation, high day temperatures and cold nights are the characteristics of the biome known as
A
a swamp
B
tropical forest
C
southern guinea savanna
D
afro alpine
E
desert
Q19
Which of the following conclusions can not be drawn from the graphs ?
A
Ion is taken up more rapidly at suitable temperature
B
Suitable oxygen concentration increases ion uptake
C
Ion uptake requires energy from aerobic respiration of sugar
D
Ion uptake occurs most rapidly in adequate supply of respiratory substrate
E
The quantity of ions absorbed is inversely proportional to the quantity of carbohydrate (sugar) synthesized.
Q20

Which of the following is the correct chain for the organism found in an aquatic community?

A

Paramecium→phytoplankton→prawn →waterflea→ Tilapia→ shark

B

Waterflea →Paramecium→ phytoplankton→ prawn→ Tilapia→ shark

C

Phytoplankton→ waterflea→ paremecium→ prawn→ shark →Tilapia

D

phytoplankton →paremecium →waterflea→ prawn→ Tilapia→ shark

E

paramecium→phytoplankton→ waterflea →prawn→ shark

Q21
Ina food chain, the position occupied by an organism is called
A
the trophic level
B
energy level
C
the feeding level
D
the habitat level
E
niche
Q22
Which of these statements about food chain is not correct?
A
Animals in the chain are consumers
B
A food chain usually begins with a green plant
C
All organisms in a food chain are animals
D
Living things are dependent on one another
E
the food chain involves energy transfer in an ecosystem
Q23
Which of the following is not an outcome of ecological succession?
A
There is a progressive change in species structure, organic matter and energy flow
B
The climax stage consists of a comparatively long lasting species composition
C
There is no dynamic equilibrium between the community and habitat in the climax stage
D
Communities occurring later in the sequence of succession are more complex
E
There are fewer dominant species in the late stages succession
Q24
Which of the following is not an effect of overcrowding on a population?
A
Death
B
Competition
C
Commensalism
D
Aggression
E
Cannibalism
Q25
The following are useful measures for conserving forest except
A
preventing and controlling accidental forest fire
B
encouraging the use of charcoal for industrial and domestic purposes
C
combating and preventing plant diseases
D
reafforestation of depleted forest
E
protection of young growing trees
Q26
Which of the following ecological factors causes food shortage?
A
Low rate of reproduction
B
Emigration
C
Drought
D
Topography
E
wind direction
Q27
What is the foot labeled I adapted to?
A
Feeding on flesh
B
Eating grains
C
Swimming in water
D
perching on tree
E
Catching insects in flight
Q28
The foot labeled III is strong and has blunt claws on its digits. This implies that the bird
A
is a soavenger
B
is a bird of a prey
C
is a marine bird
D
uses the foot to scratch the soil
E
uses the foot to supplement wing action in flight
Q29
The long and sharp claws in the foot labeled II show that the bird uses them to
A
hold onto its prey
B
paddle in water
C
glide in the air
D
scratch the earth for worms
E
burrow into the soil
Q30
Conventional method of sewage disposal involves all the following except defecating
A
into pit latrines
B
in open fields
C
into cesspit
D
into bucket latrine
E
into water borne sewage system
Q31
All the following can illustrate the dynamic nature of the ecosystem except
A
nitrogen cycle
B
carbon cycle
C
water cycle
D
nutrient cycle
E
locomotion in organisms
Q32
The morphological, physiological and behavioral characteristics which enable an organism to survive in its environment is called
A
heredity
B
ecology
C
competition
D
adaptation
E
variation
Q33
Which of the following represents the correct order in a possible food chain?
A
Crustacea------ diatom------fish------man
B
Fish------crustacea------man------diatom
C
Man------fish------crustacea------diatom
D
Diatom------crustacea------fish------man
E
Man-----diatom-----fish-----curstacea
Q34
Which of the following relationships illustrates competition?
A
Cattle egret moving along with cattle
B
Goat and cows grazing on small grasslawn
C
Mosses succeeding lichens in a rocky terrain
D
Red mangrove swamp dying and replaced by white mangrove
E
Forest trees, shrubs and grasses replacing white mangrove in a swamp
Q35
Which of the following factors does not control population growth?
A
Food shortage
B
Emigration
C
Abundance of food
D
Predation
E
Natural disaster
Q36
The following conditions form the basis of competition in a habitat except
A
food
B
space
C
reproductive mate
D
light
E
body structure
Q37
The gradual, cumulative, adaptive and heritage changes in an organism over a long period of time resulting in emergence of new species is known as
A
adaption
B
survival
C
regeneration
D
variation
E
organic evolution
Q38
Which of the following is not a pollution control measure?
A
penalising those who dump refuse on water or land
B
Controlling the emission of smoke from automobiles and industries
C
Ensuring that there is no spillage of oil
D
Establishing government agencies like Federal Environment Protection Agency ( FEPA )
E
Channeling sewage into streams
Q39
Which of the following best describes a marine habitat? A large body of water
A
which has no distinctive colour or taste
B
with high concentration of salt
C
with little suspended materials
D
with no water weeds
E
which sustains no animal life
Q40
The following are features of the tropical rain forest except
A
abundant water supply
B
loose and moist soil
C
short trees growing beneath tall trees
D
scanty trees with small leaves
E
presence of many animals
Q41
The following are features of Northern Guinea Savanna except
A
presence of tall trees with thick bark
B
bare soil with very few trees
C
presence of fire-resistant trees
D
abundant herbivores
E
predominance of woody trees
Q42
Which of the following explains the term pyramid of numbers?
A
The number of organisms in a trophic level
B
The relationship between plants in different trophic levels
C
The number of saprophytes and parasites in a habitat
D
The number of predators in a habitat
E
Progressive decrease in the number of individuals from lower to higher trophic level
Q43
Which of the following water pollutants may contain organisms that cause dysentery?
A
Pesticides
B
Sewage
C
Industrial wastes
D
Fertilizers
E
Crude oil
Q44
Which of the following is not an adaptation of plants or animals to desert environment?
A
Well developed tap root system
B
Small leaves with thick epidermis
C
Stems with spike-like leaves
D
Metabolic waste in the form or uric acid in some animals
E
Broad leaves for storage
Q45
A climax community is characterized by
A
a stable composition of plant and animal species
B
rapid changes in the composition of species
C
constant changes in appearance of the habitat
D
different species occurring at different times
E
gradual change in animal population
Q46
Which of the following is not a characteristic of overcrowding in plant and animal community?
A
Population outstripping available space
B
Population exceeding available food
C
Competition within the population
D
increase in primary population
E
Population increasing at the same rate as the birth rate
Q47
The use of predators or parasites to control pests in the farm is known as
A
predator control
B
chemical control
C
biological control
D
animal control
E
parasitic control
Q48
Which of the following is the underlining principle in the adoption of biological control of pests?
A
Knowledge of agricultural practices by the farmer
B
Relationship between plants and animals
C
The presence of poisonous chemicals in the farm
D
The relative population of plants and animals in the farm
E
The predator-prey relationship in the biological community
Q49
Which of the following does not illustrate adaptation to the environment?
A
Colour changes by chameleon
B
Streamline shape of fishes
C
Light bones in birds
D
Development of big muscles by a weight lifter
E
Possession of fins by fishes
Q50
The changing of colour by a chameleon to that of the environment is an example of
A
adaptive radiation
B
protective coloration
C
courtship display
D
display of body colour
E
territorial behavior
Q51
The property of clay soil that prevents it from supporting thick vegetation is its
A
possession of chemically weathered granite rocks
B
inability to retain much water
C
tendency of becoming water logged
D
porosity and low water retention ability
E
high capillary spaces between the soil particles
Q52
Predation is an example of a factor in an ecological system referred to as
A
edaphic
B
topographic
C
abiotic
D
biome
E
biotic
Q53
Which of the following world biomes is found in Nigeria?
A
Sahel Savannah
B
Tundra
C
Desert
D
Afro-alpine vegetation
E
Temperate deciduous forest
Q54
A hygrometer is used for measuring
A
relative humidity
B
specific gravity
C
light intensity
D
turbidity
E
wind speed
Q55
Which of the following is used for the collection of small insects from soil, leaf litter and crevices?
A
Pooter
B
Quadrat
C
Sweep net
D
Drag net
E
Butterfly net
Q56
A food web can be described as a
A
complex feeding relationship in a community
B
transfer of food energy from one community to another
C
complex pattern of food production in a community
D
group of many populations competing for the same type of food
E
group of organism belonging to the same trophic level
Q57
The partway through which nutrient elements are replenished and circulated in an ecosystem is called a
A
cycle
B
food chain
C
food web
D
kreb's cycle
E
pyramid of numbers
Q58
Which of the following is a pollutant of air?
A
Oxygen
B
Water vapour
C
Carbon monoxide
D
Nitrogen
E
Hydrogen
Q59
Which of the following soil types retains the least amount of water?
A
Loam
B
Sand
C
Clay
D
Humus
E
Slit
Q60
How are Savannah plants protected from bush fires? They
A
have sunken stomata
B
roll their leaves during hot days
C
have thick barks
D
always produce flowers
E
shed their leaves gradually throughout the year